In this project, we aim to characterize the mechanisms by which gut microbes, either pathogenic or commensals, affect the gut epithelium. In particular, we are interested in understanding how microbes alter stem cell activity, and the cross talk between immune and developmental pathways in the gut.
The wholesale value of horticulture specialty crops (defined as greenhouse, nursery, and related crops such as seeds and vegetable transplants) was $11.7 billion in 2009, the last year such comprehensive data was available (USDA NASS, 2010). Greenhouse production, a.k.a. controlled environment agriculture (CEA), is particularly important for growers faced with temperate and colder climates that make structures such as greenhouses and high tunnels vital for season extension and year-round production of flowers and edibles.
The Cornell Small Grains Breeding and Genetics Project has released a new soft red winter wheat variety called Erie with exceptionally high grain yield, grain quality and disease resistance. This variety is moderately resistant to fusarium head blight and is more sprout resistant than white wheat varieties, thus increasing the efficiency of production for the farmer and thereby resulting in higher profits.
Grape rootworm is making a comeback in Lake Erie vineyards, reducing vine size and yield and Cornell extension and research staffs are ensuring growers have the tools needed to effectively manage this pest.
A free application for Apple platforms, called 'Leaf Doctor' was further developed and tested in collaboration with A/Prof. Scot Nelson, University of Hawaii at Manoa. The program analyzes a photograph of a diseased leaf and quantifies the area affected by disease (severity) with high accuracy and precision.
Collective efforts by regional grape programs gathered winter damage data on grape vines resulting in NY Ag and markets to allow farm wineries to purchase out-of-state fruit or juice from 15 grape varieties that were found to be damaged
Research-based IPM practices have been developed and modeled for grape pests on the Network for Environment and Weather Applications (NEWA) website. The purpose of this project was to determine if adoption of cost-effective, research-based IPM practices could be increased through a daily email (eNEWA alert) and education of the resources available on NEWA. Forty-seven participants took part in the beta testing of an eNEWA-grape alert.
We are investigating the impacts of 5 different fungal endophytes on root damage by white grub larvae of the European chafer in turf-type tall fescue. We are also evaluating the impact of endophytes on the ability of turfgrasses to recover from herbivore damage. Our findings indicate that the impacts of fungal endophytes on herbivore damage and recovery are species specific.
In order to communicate with a wide diversity of stakeholders quickly and economically, and to provide information to stakeholders we may not be able to communicate with directly, a range of electronic methods of communication and information exchange on ornamental IPM have been created. These include improvements to the website, expanded Pest Alerts, the development of blogs, and a Twitter feed.
Extreme winter low temperatures in January and February 2014 caused winter injury to grapevine buds. In response, regional grape extension programs (Lake Erie, Finger Lakes, Hudson Valley, Northern NY) examined buds from over 200 vineyard blocks to characterize the extent of the injury. NYS Dept. of Ag and Markets asked us to assess the resulting crop reduction, to provide backup for a waiver to allow farm winery licencees to purchase fruit out of state.