Plant viruses overcome the barrier of the plant cell wall by encoding cell-to-cell movement proteins (MPs), which are essential to direct newly replicated viral genomes to, and across, the wall. The paradigm for how a single MP regulates and coordinates these activities is the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 30-kD protein. Detailed studies demonstrate that TMV multiplies exclusively in the cytoplasm and have documented associations of the TMV MP with ER membrane, microtubules and plasmodesmata throughout the course of infection.
The biochemical basis of fruit softening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogens are not well understood, and various attempts to identify key genes that influence these processes have failed. We have identified a tomato mutant, which we refer to as DFD (Delayed Fruit Deterioration), with remarkable characteristics in terms of an extended shelf life and resistance to disease.
The Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers was created in 1989 to support high school biology teachers through workshops, computer acquisition and training and an equipment lending library. Since 1994, the Institute has expanded to include middle level and elementary science materials.
When a new downy mildew disease began to destroy impatiens, the number one bedding plant, in the New York landscape in fall 2011, we began to work with plant producers and landscapers to ensure that they were all aware of the problem and understood the key facts of its biology—and what this new problem would mean for their businesses. We scheduled informational meetings, prepared fact sheets and a podcast and posted them online, talked to garden writers, wrote articles and gave presentations on the subject at horticultural conferences at the local, state and national levels.
We have modified a bacterial isolate to make it able to inhibit the development of crown gall disease on grape without inflicting any harmful effects to the grapevine.
This project seeks to elucidate nutritional, genetic, and nutrient-gene interactions as predictors of tuberculosis susceptibility in early childhood and to establish genetic variants in people with HIV-1 infection that affect iron metabolism and the progression to advanced HIV infection and associated mortality.
Powdery mildews are a diverse group of fungi that attack important crops. Their ability to produce vast numbers of infectious spores is the driving force of epidemics. In a series of experiments, we found that certain types of light can shut down their development. In effect, we have taken an environmental cue that the fungus uses to "wake up" and turned it against itself.
The focus of my activities is the analysis, organization and web-based dissemination of genome data for bacterial plant pathogens in the species Pseudomonas syringae and Liberibacter asiaticus.
We are developing improved analysis and characterization of steroids in human urine for anti-doping applications due to the well-known steroid use problem in sports. Our approach includes development of better separations of steroids in the complex mixture of urine compounds for measuring the quantity of steroids and if some steroids indicate use of testosterone or other illicit steroids. The techniques will be used to characterize urine from healthy, unhealthy, and doped individuals.
Students in the life sciences often take science courses taught in a traditional lecture format during their first two years. We know that students appreciate a good lecture that explains concepts well and provides a good overview of a complex topic, but we also know that students need to work through problems related to the lecture on their own time.