We are investigating the impacts of 5 different fungal endophytes on root damage by white grub larvae of the European chafer in turf-type tall fescue. We are also evaluating the impact of endophytes on the ability of turfgrasses to recover from herbivore damage. Our findings indicate that the impacts of fungal endophytes on herbivore damage and recovery are species specific.
We are evaluating the impact of pest management intensity along with the effects of pesticide identity, frequency, and rate of application on beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Our goal is to identify practices that meet current pest management needs, but also preserve soil ecological services.
Effective pest management relies on accurate identification of the target organism. Whether the audience is pest professionals that provide treatments where people live, work, learn and play, or Master Gardner Volunteers that provide recommendations to homeowners, accurate identification of arthropod pests is critical. Therefore, Dr. Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann and I created the New York State Integrated Pest Management Short Course to enhance the identification skills of pest professionals, horticulture educators and Master Gardner Volunteers.
We have developed small-molecules that inhibit Aβ production in a cell model for Alzheimer's disease. We are now pursuing cell biology studies to determine the mechanism by which this class of small molecules act in the cell, with the goal of identifying the cellular target that would facilitate the optimization of this initial hit as a therapeutic agent in AD. These studies will allow us to pursue the development of therapeutic compounds that block the production of Aβ, the neurotoxic agent in AD pathogenesis.
The sensory representation of the external chemical world in the brain is a translation of chemical features into patterns of brain activity. It is the nature these patterns—how that are established by stimulant patterns, how they vary in a population, and ultimately how they interact with other brain functions, e.g. emotions (joy) or behavior (buying wine)—that is the object of our research. We study aroma perception in order to provide information about food composition to producers that will allow them to produce likable, healthy and more profitable products.
Pests are defined as organisms that reduce the availability, quality or value of a resource or human health. Whether at work, home, school or play, we may be challenged by pests that sting, bite, cause allergens, contaminate food, or transmit disease. To help New Yorkers manage pests in ways that minimize environmental, health and economic risks, presentations are offered to organizations, companies and communities.
Epilepsy affects several million American citizens. Though there is much research done on epilepsy, little is known about how epilepsy develops. This project utilizes Drosophila (the fruit fly) to identify genes that are involved in the development of epilepsy. We have identified a previously unknown gene that leads to seizures. We are currently determining how this gene leads to the development of seizures.
We are studying and developing quantitative models for a newly discovered mechanism is used by cells to regulate their activities on the seconds-minutes timescale. Specific activities include cell cycle progression and the control of vaso-dilation and -contraction.
This project has sought to elucidate the life cycles of two rust diseases that are relatively new to New York, pear trellis rust and Japanese apple rust. Finding the rest of the life cycle (as it is being carried out in New York) has required the use of molecular techniques to identify the rust on its juniper hosts. Recently surveys were successful in identifying a host for the pear trellis rust, and two hosts for the Japanese apple rust, providing the green industry with information needed to make good choices for what ornamentals should not be paired together in the landscape.
This work investigates the function of binary cis-trans X-Pro conformational switches in innate immunity signaling, and transforms our thinking about the role of Pro-rich sequences and PPIase enzymes in biology.