Powdery mildew is one of the world's most destructive diseases of grapevines. We know that infection of grapevines occurs as soon as they begin to grow in spring, but epidemics seem to stall for about six weeks and go nowhere fast. We've found that it's our cold nights that are suppressing the disease. Two modes of action are suggested. First, cold nights stimulate a temporary defense response in the youngest, and ordinarily most-susceptible, leaves. Second, cold causes direct damage to the mildew colonies.
Management development and training programs, supported by applied research focused on current and future food industry issues, will improve the efficiency of food marketing and distribution within the state, the country, and around the world. The best practices and concepts presented in these management development programs will enable managers to provide the right foods in the right quantities at the right places at better prices for increased consumer benefit and welfare.
Prior to the findings of this research, there were no research-based guidelines for juice manufacturers to target for percentage of rotted fruit for juice production or intervention methods to reduce patulin levels below regulatory limits. The findings suggest that the targeted culling rates for apples to be less than 0.1 percent of Penicillium expansum-infected fruit to ensure less than 50 ppb of patulin in the finished juice.
New York Sea Grant developed and implemented a trawl design outreach project in cooperation with Rhode Island Sea Grant and the Memorial University of Newfoundland to help freshwater trawl users better understand the mechanics of trawl operation and effects of trawl design on fish sampling efficiency. One of the participants from the Czech Republic used this information to inform other countries in the European Union on trawl building.