Powdery mildew is one of the world's most destructive diseases of grapevines. We know that infection of grapevines occurs as soon as they begin to grow in spring, but epidemics seem to stall for about six weeks and go nowhere fast. We've found that it's our cold nights that are suppressing the disease. Two modes of action are suggested. First, cold nights stimulate a temporary defense response in the youngest, and ordinarily most-susceptible, leaves. Second, cold causes direct damage to the mildew colonies.
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It`s no surprise that severely diseased grapes make poor wine. However, we found that even trace levels of powdery mildew set in motion a sequence of events that results in severely downgraded and wine that could not be sold. The damage is not due to the powdery mildew itself, but to how it shifts the naturally occurring (and normally beneficial) microbial community on grape berries towards one that produces foul flavors and odors during winemaking.
Fruit farmers and turfgrass managers must produce pesticide and fertilizer records on demand for EPA Worker Protection, NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation, food safety audits, food processors, produce brokers, eco-markets, organic certifiers, etc. Trac Software has been documented to improve pesticide application record keeping and to facilitate generating reports. Since its invention in 2003 by Juliet Carroll, NYS IPM Program, over 500 fruit farmers in New York and worldwide have obtained Trac Software, and 98 percent continue using it.
This project documents all the archaeologically excavated gardens of the ancient Roman Empire. It summarizes the results of the findings and provides photographs, drawings, and reconstructions of each garden.