CALS projectJanuary 2007 - December 2009
Improving the safety of apple juice and cider
Prior to the findings of this research, there were no research-based guidelines for juice manufacturers to target for percentage of rotted fruit for juice production. The findings suggest that the targeted culling rates for apples to be less than 0.1% of Penicillium expansum infected fruit to ensure less than 50 ppb of patulin in the finished juice. Apple varieties tested were common domestic apples used for juice and cider production. There appeared to be a propensity for specific varieties of apples that are more susceptible to P. expansum infection and subsequent patulin production. The most susceptible varieties were Golden Supreme and McIntosh of the six varieties tested. It was also found that storage temperature had an effect on patulin levels in apples and it was found that lower refrigerated holding temperatures delayed the development of patulin levels in the apples. Based on this research, a target culling rate for rotted fruit was determined to be 0.1%. These findings can be used as guidelines for juice manufacturers, processors and regulatory agencies to reduce the levels of patulin in finished apple juice.
No research based guidelines existed for apple growers and juice manufacturers to target as the minimum amount of rotted fruit to be allowed in juice production to reduce the levels of patulin to less than 50 ppb, the regulatory action level in the US. Juice manufacturers now know that one rotted apple with a mycotoxing producing mold in a total of one bin, approximately 1000 apples will exceed the allowed limit for patulin in the finishe juice. The culling rates set by this research will reduce the amount of affected juice that will result in an economic savings for apple growers and juice processors while improving the safety of apple juice for consumers.
Typical apple varieties used in juice production were inoculated with patulin producing mold and held to determine the incidence and production of patulin in the different apple varieties. The levels of patulin in the mold infected apples was determined and used to develop the target culling rates for rotted apples prior to juice production.
The culling rates set by this research will reduce the amount of affected juice that will result in an economic savings for apple growers and juice processors while improving the safety of apple juice for consumers.
Smith Lever 3(b) & (c)
- Churey, John J
- Padilla-Zakour, Olga I.
- SALOMÃO, BEATRIZ C. M.
- Worobo, Randy W.
Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC
academic priority area
Land Grant Mission
domestic geographic focus
All NY Counties
All U.S. states
international geographic focus
USDA topic area
Enhance Protection and Safety of Agriculture and Food Supply
January 2007 - December 2009